The buyer pays not only for garbage collection, but also for air pollution, treatment, etc.
Thus, the plant recycles unsorted household waste. Another such plant operates in Dnepropetrovsk. Equipment for these enterprises was purchased in Czechoslovakia. The Energia plant is equipped with 4 Dukla incinerators, each of which can burn 15 tons of waste per hour.
Due to the operation of the plant, the operation of two Kyiv landfills was stopped: near the village of Prolisky on the Boryspil highway ("Bortnychi") and Pirogivsky – on the ring road ("Pirogovo").
Waste incinerators are: solid waste (ash and slag), liquid (wastewater), gaseous (flue gases, among which the most dangerous component, which is formed in large quantities, are: sulfur oxide (IV). When burning TVP and fuel, %:
fuel oil – 0.3-3.5. oil shale – 1.6-3.8. brown coal near Moscow – 8.0. Donetsk coal -. 10 4.0. US solid waste – 0.1-0.15. solid household waste from European countries – 0.1–0.3.
Recently, scientists in many countries have expressed concern about the growing emissions of pollutants by modern incinerators. The reason for this was the information that the burning of plastic and some types of paper produces new chemicals – dioxins and furans, which are released into the air pool. There are no standards for maximum levels of dioxin concentrations in many countries. The presence of ash impurities in incinerators is also a matter of concern, as they contain heavy metals.
Special equipment at Ukrainian GCCs built during the Soviet era is not designed to effectively combat pollution, including dioxins. In general, the activities of domestic incinerators are officially recognized as dangerous. In addition, expensive natural gas and electricity make the activities of domestic enterprises unprofitable. Closing them is considered a matter of time, and only the lack of funds for alternative waste management methods is the reason that the GCCs are still working.
There is more and more information about the negative impact of landfills on groundwater and surrounding rivers. From incineration to recycling. Incineration, as a measure to eliminate household waste, is a positive phenomenon, especially if it is accompanied by the supply of electricity or steam. However, certain substances can be removed from waste – metal, glass, paper, rubber, plastic, etc. for reuse. The process of extraction of valuable components from waste with subsequent elimination in nature management is called utilization. If the subsequently removed components become raw materials for other production, then use the concept of recycling,
Theoretically, all waste should be recycled, but where the process of removing valuable components from the garbage is quite complex. In some regions, such as the United States, up to 22% of waste is recycled.
Aluminum, glassware and steel can be recycled almost indefinitely. Production of aluminum from 1 ton of secondary saves 4 tons of bauxite and 700 kg of special coke, 35 kg reduces emissions of aluminum fluoride compounds. In addition, energy consumption for metal smelting is reduced.
It is estimated that about 90% of glass waste is suitable for recovery. Each ton of glass battle saves almost 1.2 tons of raw materials.
Recycling of waste paper helps to save millions of hectares of forest, save energy and water, reduce air and water pollution.
Until recently, most milk, lactic acid products, soft drinks and beer were bottled by producers in glass bottles, which could be handed over, returning their collateral value. The machines delivered the bottles and delivered them back empty, washed and refilled. Such a system is effective only when the distance between producer and consumer is small. However, as distances increase, transportation costs become too high, and consumers have to pay not only for bottles but also for their transportation.
There is another type of packaging – light, which can be thrown away and not taken back. At the same time, it turned out to be very profitable for its producers – after all, the profit is always obtained from each bottle or jar produced!
So, not surprisingly, the current situation is that disposable packaging accounts for about 6% of all municipal solid waste, about 50% of non-combustible waste and about 90% of roadside debris that is not biodegradable (ie, does not decompose naturally) …
Such packaging is environmentally undesirable, as the production of the necessary materials and itself causes air pollution. All these are hidden costs that are not indicated on the sales receipt. The buyer pays not only for garbage collection, but also for air pollution, treatment, etc. Environmental activists in the United States, who were well aware of the problem, managed to get the adoption of so-called "bottle bills" in 9 states. This contributed to the fact that consumers began to prefer reusable packaging.
Burials (cemeteries) are used as an alternative to open landfills. In this case, the garbage is simply buried in the ground or poured on the surface and sprinkled with a layer of soil on top. Since the waste in this case does not burn and is covered with soil, it is possible to avoid air pollution and the reproduction of unwanted animals. Unfortunately, these circumstances, as well as financial opportunities were usually taken into account when arranging cemeteries. It did not take into account how the water cycle takes place, what substances can be formed during the decomposition of garbage, how to prevent other undesirable phenomena. Any convenient lowering of the terrain became a place of garbage disposal.
Garbage disposal is associated with related environmental problems:
leaching of substances and pollution of groundwater; methane formation; subsidence of the soil.
The most serious problem is groundwater pollution. Water is a universal solvent. Leaking through the layers of buried waste, rainwater (thawed) water is "enriched" with various chemicals that are formed during the decomposition of garbage. Such water with pollutants dissolved in it is called a filtrate.
When it passes through untreated waste, a particularly toxic (poisonous) filtrate is formed, in which iron, mercury, zinc, lead and other metals from cans, batteries and other electrical appliances are present along with organic residues, all flavored with dyes, pesticides , detergents. means and other chemicals. Illiterate choice of burial sites and we write your lab report neglect of safety means allows this toxic mixture to reach aquifers.
The second problem – the formation of methane – is associated with anaerobic processes that occur in buried layers of debris without access to air. When formed, this gas can spread in the ground horizontally, accumulate in basements and explode there when ignited. Spreading vertically, methane poisons and kills vegetation. In the absence of vegetation, soil erosion begins, buried waste is exposed and comes to the surface.
The most effective is the pyrolysis of solid household waste, which includes crushing and drying of garbage, removal of all inorganic fractions, heating of other mass to 485C without access of air. 160 liters of artificial low-sulfur oil, 70 kg of coal, and combustible gases are extracted from 1 ton of organic matter. However, such plants are quite expensive and efficient in very large cities.
Thus, disposal and incineration are the most common ways used by mankind to solve the problem of solid waste. Other fundamentally new methods that allow you to dispose of garbage before it appears will be studied in the future.
State regulation of the problem
Today in Ukraine waste management is determined by the Laws "On Environmental Protection" (1991), "On Waste" (1998), "On Ensuring Sanitary and Epidemic Welfare of the Population" "On Radioactive Waste Management" "On scrap metal" by the Subsoil Code of Ukraine, as well as the "Program of solid waste management" approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 265 of March 4, 2004 (sections 2,3), other regulations.
In particular, according to Article 5 of the Law of Ukraine "On Waste" the main principles of state policy in the field of waste management are "priority protection of the environment and human health from the negative impact of waste, ensuring economical use of raw materials and energy resources, scientifically sound environmental, economic and social interests of society …
Article 15 of the Law "On Waste" obliges citizens of Ukraine, foreigners and stateless persons to comply with legal requirements, to pay for the activities of enterprises engaged in waste disposal, to perform other obligations to prevent environmental pollution by waste. waste is constantly improving, involving not only government agencies but also NGOs.
The main areas of activity in this direction are defined by the Laws of Ukraine "On Environmental Protection" "On Waste". The long-term development plan of OJSC Kryvorizhstal until 2010 envisages the implementation of 36 environmental measures with a total value of UAH 335 million. One of them started in 2003. This is the construction of a landfill for industrial and construction waste, which will ensure compliance with environmental safety standards.
The construction site is located on the vacant territory of the Kryvorizhstal plant and occupies 35.5 hectares. The cost of construction of the landfill is UAH 28.142 million. The commissioning of the landfill will allow to place waste of III, IV hazard classes in the amount of 400 thousand tons per year for 5 years. An important way to solve the problem of waste disposal is to develop a scheme for storage of waste at the landfill, which is being built for the disposal of industrial and construction waste.
According to this scheme, waste is divided into three groups: energy (combustible), material and waste that cannot be disposed of at the current level of development of science and technology.